You have just been hired as a Research Assistant for a hospital where you will work with a human research team. As a part of your training, you are expected to refresh your understanding of historical issues in human research and how they relate to current research practices. Your supervisor has asked you to create a PowerPoint to demonstrate your understanding of historical issues in human research-based. Your presentation will be based on one of the following articles:
- Tuskegee Syphilis Study
- Mackey-Kallis, S. (2019). Tuskegee experiment. Salem Press Encyclopedia.
- Henrietta Lacks
- Gabbay, F. H. (2012). An American woman and the right to health. Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes, 75(2), 113–119.
- Nazi Medical Experiments
- Naming the victims of Nazi medicine. (2017). The Lancet, 389(10085), 2182-2183.
- Thomas, K. (2020, Mar 24). Thalidomide’s legacy: [Correction]. New York Times
Create a PowerPoint presentation that examines historical issues in human research and how this relates to current research practices. Select one of the articles listed above on the following historical research projects: Tuskegee Syphilis Study, Henrietta Lacks, Nazi Medical Experiments, or Thalidomide Trials.
The presentation should address the following:
- Define ethics in human research and identify how ethics are presented in the article.
- Explain the background and hypothesis of the historical research project.
- Explain the role of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and note examples of protections for research participants. If there was no IRB, explain how having one could have helped maintain ethical standards.
- Using current principles outlined by the IRB that govern human research, identify the principles that were violated. Provide an explanation regarding the violations and how these violations would have been avoided using current research practices.
- The presentation should be visually appealing with colors, graphics, and keywords.
- Use the notes section below each slide to write the details of what would be said during a live presentation. This allows you to show the instructor your understanding and critical thinking skills.
Hello everyone, I am here to present on the historical issues in human research, specifically the Henrietta Lacks case. This presentation will explore the ethical considerations of the case, the background and hypothesis of the research project, the role of the Institutional Review Board (IRB), and the principles that were violated. We will also discuss how these violations could have been avoided using current research practices.
Slide 1: Title
Title: Historical Issues in Human Research: The Henrietta Lacks Case
Slide 2: Ethics in Human Research
• Definition of ethics in human research • How ethics are presented in the article
Ethics in human research refers to the moral principles that guide the conduct of research involving human subjects. In the Henrietta Lacks case, ethical considerations were not adequately addressed, leading to a breach of trust and violation of human rights. The article by Gabbay (2012) emphasizes the importance of informed consent and respect for patient autonomy in research.
Slide 3: Background and Hypothesis
• Brief background of the Henrietta Lacks case • Hypothesis of the research project
Henrietta Lacks was a woman who died of cervical cancer in 1951. Her cancer cells were taken without her knowledge or consent, and used for scientific research. The hypothesis of the research project was to develop a cell line that could be used for various types of research.
Slide 4: Role of the Institutional Review Board (IRB)
• Definition of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) • Examples of protections for research participants
The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a committee responsible for reviewing and approving research involving human subjects. The IRB ensures that the research is conducted ethically and in accordance with established guidelines. Examples of protections for research participants include informed consent, confidentiality, and protection from harm.
Slide 5: Importance of IRB
• Explanation of how having an IRB could have helped maintain ethical standards
If an IRB had been involved in the Henrietta Lacks case, the researchers would have been required to obtain informed consent from Ms. Lacks or her family, and to ensure that her privacy was protected. The IRB would have also been able to provide oversight and ensure that the research was conducted ethically.
Slide 6: Principles that were Violated
• Current principles outlined by the IRB that govern human research • Principles that were violated in the Henrietta Lacks case
The current principles outlined by the IRB that govern human research include respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. In the Henrietta Lacks case, her cells were taken without her knowledge or consent, which violated her right to respect for persons. Additionally, the researchers did not provide her or her family with any compensation for the use of her cells, which violated the principle of justice.
Slide 7: Avoiding Violations
• Explanation of how the violations could have been avoided using current research practices
The violations in the Henrietta Lacks case could have been avoided using current research practices. Researchers would have been required to obtain informed consent from Ms. Lacks or her family, and to ensure that her privacy was protected. Compensation would also have been required for the use of her cells.
Slide 8: Conclusion
• Summary of the main points • Importance of ethics in human research
In conclusion, the Henrietta Lacks case highlights the importance of ethics in human research. Ethical considerations, such as obtaining informed consent and ensuring the protection of participant privacy and welfare, are critical in maintaining the trust of research participants and the public. By following these principles, researchers can conduct research that is both scientifically valid and ethically sound.