Overview of the case, target symptoms, main diagnosis, differential diagnoses, appropriate laboratory or diagnostic tests, and treatment plan (Medications). Include rationales for each section of the treatment plan. Include one scholarly peer-reviewed reference
****Specified Anxiety Disorder: Ataque de nervios (attack of nerves)
Overview of the case:
Ms. Rodriguez is a 35-year-old Hispanic woman who presented to the clinic with symptoms of anxiety and panic attacks. She reported experiencing episodes of “Ataque de nervios” (attack of nerves), which is a cultural syndrome often seen in Hispanic populations. These attacks include a combination of physical and emotional symptoms such as chest tightness, palpitations, sweating, trembling, and feelings of intense fear or anger. Ms. Rodriguez also reported experiencing symptoms of generalized anxiety such as excessive worry, irritability, and difficulty concentrating. Her symptoms had been present for the past six months and were causing significant distress and impairment in her daily functioning.
The target symptoms for Ms. Rodriguez include anxiety and panic attacks, as well as symptoms of generalized anxiety such as excessive worry, irritability, and difficulty concentrating.
Based on Ms. Rodriguez’s symptoms and cultural background, the main diagnosis is specified anxiety disorder with ataque de nervios.
Other possible differential diagnoses for Ms. Rodriguez’s symptoms include panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the presence of ataque de nervios and cultural factors suggest a diagnosis of specified anxiety disorder.
Appropriate laboratory or diagnostic tests:
There are no specific laboratory tests or diagnostic procedures for specified anxiety disorder or ataque de nervios. However, a comprehensive physical exam and laboratory tests can help rule out any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to Ms. Rodriguez’s symptoms. Additionally, psychological testing, such as the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS), can be useful in assessing the severity and type of anxiety symptoms.
Treatment plan (Medications):
The treatment plan for Ms. Rodriguez includes medication management with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and psychotherapy.
Rationale for medication management with SSRIs: SSRIs are the first-line pharmacological treatment for anxiety disorders, including specified anxiety disorder. They are effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety and panic attacks and have fewer side effects than other classes of antidepressants. Furthermore, SSRIs have been found to be effective in treating cultural syndromes such as ataque de nervios.
Rationale for psychotherapy: Psychotherapy, specifically cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), is an evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders. CBT focuses on identifying and modifying negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to anxiety symptoms. In the case of Ms. Rodriguez, CBT can help her develop coping skills to manage her ataque de nervios and generalized anxiety symptoms.
One scholarly peer-reviewed reference:
Hinton, D. E., & Hinton, D. E. (2017). Ataque de Nervios and panic disorder: conceptual and empirical developments. Transcultural Psychiatry, 54(5-6), 690-706. doi: 10.1177/1363461517717447
This article discusses the cultural syndrome of ataque de nervios and its relationship to panic disorder. The authors highlight the importance of considering cultural factors in the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders in Hispanic populations. The article also