O.P. is a 43-year-old female patient who is seeing at the office because she is complaining of vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse for about two months now.She stated she has been married for 4 years now but has multiple sexual partners in the past. As positive history in her last cervical cancer screen (two years ago) she was positive for HPV type 16.
- Discuss the appropriate diagnostic testing for the patient.
- Develop the management plan (pharmacological and nonpharmacological).
- Why is HPV the most important of the cervical cancer screening in patients that have tested HPV positive.
- According to the United States Preventive Service Taskforce (USPSTF) guidelines, what would be the cervical cancer screening recommendation for average risk women in the age range for O.P. and until what age women should be screened.
Then, continue to discuss the 3 topics listed below for your case:
- An effective health assessment incorporates not only physiological parameters; please suggest other parameters that should be considered and included on health assessments to reach maximal health potential on individuals.
- Name the different family developmental stages and give examples of each one.
- Describe family structure and function and the relationship with health care.
Post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources.
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse is a concerning symptom for cervical cancer, especially in a patient with a history of HPV infection. This case presents a 43-year-old female patient who complains of vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse and has a positive history of HPV type 16. This paper will discuss the appropriate diagnostic testing and management plan for the patient, the importance of HPV in cervical cancer screening, and the USPSTF guidelines for cervical cancer screening in average-risk women. Additionally, this paper will suggest other parameters that should be considered in health assessments, describe the different family developmental stages and their examples, and explain family structure and function and their relationship with healthcare.
Diagnostic Testing and Management Plan
The appropriate diagnostic testing for the patient includes a pelvic examination, Pap smear, and HPV test. A pelvic examination will help to assess the cervix and detect any abnormality or mass. A Pap smear is recommended to screen for cervical cancer and identify any precancerous or cancerous cells. In this case, a co-test with HPV testing is recommended as the patient has a history of HPV type 16. The management plan for the patient will depend on the results of the diagnostic testing. If the Pap smear and HPV test results are normal, the patient should be advised to continue with routine cervical cancer screening. However, if the results indicate abnormal cells, further evaluation with colposcopy and biopsy may be necessary.
Pharmacological management for cervical cancer includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy. Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, while radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells. Targeted therapy targets specific proteins or genes that help cancer cells grow and divide. Nonpharmacological management for cervical cancer includes surgery, which may involve the removal of the cervix or the entire uterus. Additionally, counseling and support groups may be beneficial for patients and their families to cope with the emotional and psychological impact of a cancer diagnosis.
Importance of HPV in Cervical Cancer Screening
HPV is the most important factor in cervical cancer screening as it is the primary cause of cervical cancer. HPV infection can lead to precancerous changes in the cervix that, if left untreated, can progress to cervical cancer. Therefore, HPV testing is recommended for women with abnormal Pap smear results or for routine screening in women aged 30 and older. In this case, the patient’s positive history of HPV type 16 makes her at higher risk for cervical cancer and warrants closer surveillance.
USPSTF Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening
The USPSTF recommends cervical cancer screening in average-risk women starting at age 21 with a Pap smear every 3 years. Women aged 30-65 should have a Pap smear every 3 years or a co-test with Pap smear and HPV testing every 5 years. Women over 65 who have had regular screening with normal results should stop cervical cancer screening. Women with a history of cervical cancer or other high-risk factors may require more frequent screening.
Other Parameters to Consider in Health Assessments
An effective health assessment should incorporate not only physiological parameters but also psychological, social, and environmental factors. Psychological factors include mental health status, emotional well-being, and cognitive function. Social factors include support systems, living arrangements, and social networks. Environmental factors include exposure to toxins, pollution, and natural disasters. Including these parameters in health assessments can provide a more holistic approach to patient care and help identify potential barriers to health promotion and disease prevention.
Different Family Developmental Stages and Examples
Family developmental stages are the different phases that families go through as they develop and change over time. The stages include the beginning stage