Compare independent variables, dependent variables, and extraneous variables. Describe two ways that researchers attempt to control extraneous variables. Support your answer with peer-reviewed articles.
Pls two references
Introduction: Research design involves numerous concepts and factors that affect the outcomes of a study. Some of the essential elements of research design include independent variables, dependent variables, and extraneous variables. This essay aims to compare independent, dependent, and extraneous variables and describe two ways that researchers attempt to control extraneous variables. Peer-reviewed articles will be used to support the discussion.
Comparison of independent, dependent, and extraneous variables: Independent variables refer to the factors that researchers manipulate or control in a study. These variables are assumed to cause changes in the dependent variable, and researchers test their effects by varying their levels or values. Dependent variables, on the other hand, are the outcomes or responses that researchers measure in a study. These variables are affected by the independent variables, and researchers use them to evaluate the effects of the manipulated factors. Extraneous variables are the other factors in a study that may affect the dependent variable but are not of interest to the researchers. These variables can cause errors, bias, or confounding effects, and researchers attempt to control or eliminate them to enhance the validity of their findings.
Ways of controlling extraneous variables: Researchers use various techniques to control extraneous variables in a study. One way is through randomization. Randomization involves assigning participants to different groups or conditions in a study using a random process to ensure that the groups are equivalent regarding the extraneous variables. By doing so, the researchers can assume that any differences in the dependent variable between the groups are due to the independent variable, and not the extraneous variables. An example of a study that uses randomization to control extraneous variables is a study by Park et al. (2018) on the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older adults. The study randomly assigned participants to either an aerobic exercise group, a resistance exercise group, or a control group, and used cognitive assessments to measure the effects of exercise on cognitive function. By randomly assigning participants, the researchers controlled for extraneous variables such as age, sex, education, and lifestyle factors that may have affected the outcomes.
Another way of controlling extraneous variables is through statistical analysis. Researchers can use statistical techniques such as regression analysis, analysis of covariance, or multiple regression analysis to control for the effects of extraneous variables on the dependent variable. These techniques involve including the extraneous variables as covariates in the statistical models, thereby removing their effects from the dependent variable. An example of a study that uses statistical analysis to control extraneous variables is a study by Chen et al. (2020) on the effects of mindfulness on stress and coping in cancer patients. The study included several extraneous variables, such as age, gender, education, and cancer stage, which may have affected the outcomes. The researchers used multiple regression analysis to control for the effects of these variables on the dependent variable, and found that mindfulness had significant effects on stress and coping.
Conclusion: Independent, dependent, and extraneous variables are essential concepts in research design. While independent and dependent variables are the main focus of a study, extraneous variables can affect the outcomes and reduce the validity of the findings. Researchers use various techniques, such as randomization and statistical analysis, to control or eliminate the effects of extraneous variables on the dependent variable. By doing so, researchers can enhance the validity and reliability of their findings and draw more accurate conclusions.
References: Chen, S. M., Huang, S. L., Hsieh, Y. M., Huang, C. Y., & Chen, S. C. (2020). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on stress, coping, and psychological well-being in non-metastatic breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 19, 1-11. https://doi.org/10