Importance of Health and Wellness Models

one-two paragraphs, apa , please include reference

(1)Based on your understanding of nursing today, discuss how the Healthy People 2020 initiative could be used by you, as a nurse, to make a difference in the health and wellness of people in your area.

(2)Using one of the theories, explain the importance of health and wellness models to professional nursing practice and the impact it has on individual nurses.

Models of Health
Throughout history, society has entertained a variety of concepts
of health (David, 2000). Smith (1983) describes four distinct
models of health in her classic work:
Clinical Model
In the clinical model, health is defined by the absence and illness
by the conspicuous presence of signs and symptoms of disease.
People who use this model may not seek preventive health
services or they may wait until they are very ill to seek care. The
clinical model is the conventional model of the discipline of
Role Performance Model
The role performance model of health defines health in terms of
individuals’ ability to perform social roles. Role performance
includes work, family, and social roles, with performance based
on societal expectations. Illness would be the failure to perform
roles at the level of others in society. This model is the basis for
occupational health evaluations, school physical examinations,
and physician-excused absences. The idea of the “sick role,”
which excuses people from performing their social functions, is a
vital component of the role performance model. It is argued that
the sick role is still relevant in health care today (Davis et al.,
2011; Shilling, 2002).
Adaptive Model
In the adaptive model of health, people’s ability to adjust positively
to social, mental, and physiological change is the measure of their
health. Illness occurs when the person fails to adapt or becomes
maladaptive to these changes. As the concept of adaptation has
entered other aspects of American culture, this model of health
has become more accepted. For example, spirituality can be
useful in adapting to a decreased level of functioning in older
adults (Haley et al., 2001).
Eudaimonistic Model
In the eudaimonistic model exuberant well-being indicates optimal
health. This model emphasizes the interactions between physical,
social, psychological, and spiritual aspects of life and the
environment that contribute to goal attainment and create
meaning. Illness is reflected by a denervation or languishing, a
lack of involvement with life. Although these ideas may appear to
be new when compared with the clinical model of health, aspects
of the eudaimonistic model predate the clinical model of health.
This model is also more congruent with integrative modes of
therapy (National Institutes of Health, National Center for
Complementary and Alternative Medicine [NIH/NCCAM], 2011),
which are used increasingly by people of all ages in the United
States and the world. In this eudaimonistic model, a person dying
of cancer may still be healthy if that person is finding meaning in
life at this stage of development.

importance of health and wellness models

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