-depth review of HYPERTENSION

– Include anatomy and physiology

– overview of treatment methodologies

– information related to the needs of the patient and/or family related to the problem

– include extensive graphs/charts to support data


Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a common medical condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is a condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is consistently elevated, putting strain on the heart and blood vessels. This essay will provide an in-depth review of hypertension, including its anatomy and physiology, treatment methodologies, and the needs of patients and their families related to the problem.

Anatomy and Physiology of Hypertension

Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts on the walls of the arteries as it circulates throughout the body. It is expressed in two numbers, the systolic pressure (the top number) and the diastolic pressure (the bottom number). The normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension is diagnosed when the systolic pressure is consistently above 140 mmHg and/or the diastolic pressure is consistently above 90 mmHg.

The pathophysiology of hypertension involves changes in the structure and function of the blood vessels and the heart. In hypertension, the walls of the arteries become thicker and stiffer, reducing their ability to dilate and accommodate changes in blood flow. This results in an increase in peripheral resistance, which causes the heart to work harder to pump blood through the body. Over time, this increased workload can lead to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy, a condition in which the walls of the left ventricle of the heart become thicker and less compliant.

Treatment Methodologies

There are several treatment methodologies available for hypertension, including lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy. Lifestyle modifications include weight loss, exercise, a healthy diet, and reducing alcohol and sodium intake. Pharmacotherapy includes the use of medications that target different aspects of blood pressure regulation, such as diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers, and beta-blockers.

The choice of treatment depends on the severity of hypertension, the presence of other medical conditions, and the patient’s individual characteristics. The treatment goal is to reduce blood pressure to less than 130/80 mmHg for most patients and less than 140/90 mmHg for some patients with certain comorbidities.

Needs of the Patient and/or Family Related to the Problem

Patients with hypertension and their families need to be educated about the condition, its causes, and the importance of blood pressure control. They also need to understand the benefits and risks of different treatment options and the importance of adherence to medications and lifestyle modifications.

Patient-centered care is essential for the effective management of hypertension. This includes regular blood pressure monitoring, individualized treatment plans, and close follow-up with healthcare providers. Patients with hypertension should also be encouraged to participate in shared decision-making and to take an active role in their care.

Extensive Graphs/Charts

The following graphs/charts depict the prevalence of hypertension in different age groups, the recommended blood pressure targets for different patient groups, and the use of different classes of medications for hypertension:


  1. Chobanian, A. V., Bakris, G. L., Black, H. R., Cushman, W. C., Green, L. A., Izzo Jr, J. L., Jones, D. W., Materson, B. J., Oparil, S., Wright Jr, J. T., & Roccella, E. J. (2003). The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA, 289(19), 2560-2572.
  2. James, P. A., Oparil, S., Carter, B. L., Cushman,




Minimum 400 words, not including references

APA format with intext citation

References at least four high-level scholarly reference per post within in the last 5 years.

Plagiarism free.

Turnitin receipt.

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