Secondary Ovulation Symptoms

  1. Description and bioethical analysis of:
    • Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis PGD
    • Surrogate motherhood
    • “Snowflake babies”
    • Artificial insemination
  2. What is Natural Family Planning (NFP)?
  3. Describe the 3 Primary ovulation symptoms.
  4. Describe the 7 Secondary ovulation symptoms.
  5. Describe various protocols and methods available today.
  6. Describe some ways in which NFP is healthier than contraception.
  7. Bioethical evaluation of NFP as a means and as an end.
  8. Read and summarize ERD paragraphs #: 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 52.

Secondary ovulation symptoms

  1. Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a reproductive technology used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) to screen embryos for genetic disorders or specific genetic traits before they are implanted into the uterus. During PGD, one or more cells are removed from each embryo and analyzed for genetic abnormalities or desired traits. This technique allows prospective parents to make informed decisions about which embryos to implant, reducing the risk of passing on genetic diseases.

Bioethical Analysis of PGD: PGD raises several ethical concerns, including the potential for embryo selection based on non-medical factors (e.g., gender or physical traits), the destruction of embryos found to have undesirable genetic characteristics, and concerns about “designer babies.” Ethical considerations include ensuring informed consent, avoiding discrimination, and respecting the sanctity of human life. The use of PGD should be governed by strict guidelines to prevent misuse and ensure it is used for legitimate medical reasons.

  1. Surrogate Motherhood: Surrogate motherhood involves a woman (the surrogate) carrying and giving birth to a child on behalf of another individual or couple (intended parents). There are two main types of surrogacy: traditional surrogacy, where the surrogate uses her own eggs, and gestational surrogacy, where the surrogate carries an embryo created using the eggs and sperm of the intended parents or donors.

Bioethical Analysis of Surrogate Motherhood: Surrogate motherhood raises ethical questions related to the autonomy and rights of the surrogate, potential exploitation, the emotional and psychological impact on all parties involved, and the commercialization of reproduction. Ethical guidelines should ensure the well-being and consent of all parties and address issues of legal parentage and compensation.

  1. “Snowflake Babies”: “Snowflake babies” refer to embryos that have been cryopreserved (frozen) after in vitro fertilization and are later adopted by other couples who cannot conceive naturally. This term reflects the idea that each embryo is unique and has the potential to develop into a child.

Bioethical Analysis of “Snowflake Babies”: The ethical considerations of “snowflake babies” center around the adoption of frozen embryos and the rights and responsibilities of both biological and adoptive parents. Issues such as informed consent, the welfare of the child, and the legal status of the adoptive parents must be carefully addressed.

  1. Artificial Insemination: Artificial insemination is a fertility treatment method in which sperm is introduced directly into a woman’s reproductive tract. This can be done using sperm from a partner or a donor and can be accomplished through various techniques, such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or intracervical insemination (ICI).

Bioethical Analysis of Artificial Insemination: The ethical considerations in artificial insemination involve issues of informed consent, the use of donor gametes, the rights and responsibilities of all parties involved, and the potential implications for the well-being of any resulting children. Ethical guidelines should ensure transparency, privacy, and the protection of everyone’s interests.

  1. Natural Family Planning (NFP): Natural Family Planning is a method of family planning that relies on monitoring a woman’s menstrual cycle and fertility signs to determine when to have or avoid intercourse to achieve or prevent pregnancy. It does not involve the use of artificial contraceptives.

Three Primary Ovulation Symptoms: The three primary symptoms of ovulation in NFP are:

  • Cervical mucus changes: The consistency and appearance of cervical mucus change during the menstrual cycle, becoming more clear, stretchy, and slippery around ovulation.
  • Basal body temperature (BBT) rise: BBT increases slightly after ovulation due to hormonal changes.
  • Changes in cervix position and texture: The cervix becomes softer, higher, and more open during ovulation.

Seven Secondary Ovulation Symptoms: Secondary symptoms include breast tenderness, increased libido, mild pelvic pain or twinges (mittelschmerz), heightened sense of smell, light spotting, changes in mood, and a heightened sense of taste or smell.

Various Protocols and Methods in NFP: There are several methods and protocols within NFP, including the sympto-thermal method, the cervical mucus method, and the calendar method. Some advanced NFP methods may involve the use of fertility monitoring devices and apps for greater accuracy.

Ways NFP is Healthier than Contraception: Advocates of NFP argue that it is healthier than contraception because it does not involve the use of artificial hormones or devices, reducing the risk of side effects and health risks associated with contraception. NFP also promotes a greater awareness of one’s body and natural fertility, potentially fostering better communication and intimacy between partners.

Bioethical Evaluation of NFP: The bioethical evaluation of NFP can vary depending on one’s perspective. Supporters argue that NFP aligns with natural and ethical principles by respecting the natural rhythms of a woman’s body and avoiding the potential harm associated with contraception. Critics may argue that it places a significant burden on women and couples to monitor and abstain, and that its efficacy depends on strict adherence to the method, which can be challenging.

Summarized ERD (Ethical and Religious Directives) Paragraphs: 38: Addresses the obligation of Catholic healthcare institutions to provide care in accordance with Catholic moral and religious teachings. 39: Discusses the importance of informed consent for medical procedures and the need to respect the autonomy of patients. 42: Emphasizes the sanctity of human life from conception to natural death and the prohibition of abortion and direct euthanasia. 43: Highlights the moral obligation to provide healthcare services without discrimination and to protect the dignity of all patients, regardless of their condition. 44: Addresses the importance of respecting the rights and conscience of healthcare providers who object to certain medical procedures on moral or religious grounds. 52: Discusses the ethical principles surrounding end-of-life care, including the importance of preserving life when possible and providing palliative care when appropriate.

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